Electrical Wire And Cable And Its Types
Electrical wires are conducting wires that allow the flow of electricity through them from the power source to end user device or an outlet like switch, fan, etc.
Wires are classified into three different styles. A bare wire comes without any insulated coating, just as the name suggests. Insulated solid wires have a coating of plastic which makes the upper layer insulated. The third category is insulated standard wire.
Insulated standard wire consists of many smaller sized strands of copper and comes in protective plastic coating. It is also known as Type NM cable and is sold with standard lengths of 50′, 100′, 250′, and 1,000′ spools.
Nonmetallic sheathed cable and armored cable are the two most commonly used cable. Nonmetallic sheathed cable consists of two or more insulated conductors and a bare ground wire. All these wires are together wrapped in outer plastic coating which acts as a protective sheet. The armored cable consists of four insulated wires red, white, black and green which are covered with a flexible metal case which is known as cord. Armored cables are cut of fixed size generally but they are also available in precept length roll.
Nonmetallic sheathed cables (NM) that are used for wiring houses come with color coding. The outer cover denotes the amperage rating of the wires inside. Most of the NM wires made after 2001 are covered with distinct coloured coating which makes the identification of these wires easier for both inspectors and consumers.
The color coding of the external sheath is totally dependent on the manufacturers though most of the manufacturers follow the color coding for their wires.
- The Five Basic Colors of Nonmetallic Cable
All household wires are divided into 5 colours for distinction. These colours are gray, white, orange, yellow and black. The color black is used twice for wires with different gauges. Hence you must be aware while selecting the required wire size.
These distinct colors are basic differentiators of the wire covers that are coated above the insulated and non insulated wires.
- White-colored Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable
White color coded wire sheath consists of 14-gauges wire. These wires are ideal for 15-amp circuits in our home. They are primarily used in lighting circuits.
- Yellow-colored Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable
Yellow colour coded wire sheath consists of 12-gauge wire which can be applied in circuits with 20-amp rating. They are generally used for general power for outlets and appliances.
- Orange-colored Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable
Orange color coded wire sheath has 10-gauges wire and is able to withstand 30-amp circuit loads. It is ideal for air-conditioners, water heaters and other appliances with 30-amp load.
- Black-colored Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable
Black color coded wire sheath houses 6 and 8-gauge wires. 8-gauge wires can withstand 45-amp load whereas 6-gauges is ideal for 60-amp load. 6-gauges wires are ideal for an electric range, double oven, or feeding sub panel and depend on the amperage rating listed on the appliance being used.
- Gray-colored Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable
Gray color coded NM wire is more about the area where it is installed rather than the size of its wire. Its application consists of underground installation and is available in varying sizes. Its properties includes water resistance and are also sometimes resistant to oil and sunlight.
- Nonmetallic Sheathed Cable’s Outer Jacket Labeling
All NM sheathed cables have their outer jacket labelled with letters that indicates the number of insulated wires present within the sheath. This wire does not have the count but consists of non insulated wire which is used as ground wire. If a cable has a listing 12-2 WG, then it means that there are two insulated 12-gauge wires and a ground wire. If the cable has 12-3 label, then it means that it has 3 12-gauge conductors along with a bare copper ground wire.
Rallison – We are India’s leading wires & cables manufacturer in India company.
LED Bulb Is Safer To Use Or Not
LED bulbs, Light emitting diode, is substitute of incandescent light bulbs and has received so much popularity among common people that every house has a special place for this. In 2009, incandescent lights were banned and in 2014, United States banned it. But even people have questioned that whether it is good or bad to use LED instead of incandescent light bulb.
Benefits of LEDs
There are few benefits of LED bulb which can be enlisted as:
The average lifespan of white LED bulbs is almost 20 times than that of incandescent bulbs. Where the incandescent bulbs last for 750 to 2,000 hours, LED bulbs can last for 35,000 to 50,000 hours. CFL bulbs last for 8,000 to 10,000 hours. The lifespan of LED bulbs is measured in terms of its brightness and not it terms of its burning out rate. A LED bulb is considered out for use when its brightness falls below 70%.
Incandescent bulbs emit heat which causes wastage of 90% of their energy. It is 80% in case of CFL bulbs. LED bulbs emit light in a certain direction which makes them more efficient when compared with incandescent or CFL bulbs.
LED bulbs are small in size which makes them perfect to be implemented at places that might be unsuitable for conventional light bulbs.
Unlike conventional light bulbs, LED bulbs are not made up of glass which makes them more durable and do not break easily.
Drawback of LEDs
Oladele Ogunseitan, Chairman at University of California-Irvine’s Department of Population Health and Disease Prevention, stated that, “LEDs are touted as the next generation of lighting. But as we try to find better products that do not deplete energy resources or contribute to global warming, we have to be vigilant toxicity hazards.”
LEDs are being popularized and now it is widely used instead of incandescent light bulb. However researchers had declared that it was completely safe to use as it doesn’t contain mercury but it contains arsenic, nickel and lead.
According to Ogunseitan, manufacturers of LED can easily switch over to safer materials which would make them safer for people as well as environment. Copper found in LEDs are harmful for aquatic animals if it is left to accumulate in lakes and rivers.
Harvard University claimed that it emits more blue wavelengths rather than conventional light bulbs.
ANSES which is the French Agency for Food, Environmental, and Occupational Health & Safety cited that “Blue light is recognized as being harmful and dangerous for the retina, as a result of cellular oxidative stress”. It also said that light-sensitive people, children and workers are highly affected by blue light.
Final word is based on the conclusion that LED bulbs can be manufactured in a better way to avoid the resultant hazardous situation. Laws can make it better but an appropriate manufacturing process should be evolved through technology. Well, it can also be a great way to save electricity, power and cost and can never be a choice that would fall in bad decision.
Why and how to choose a perfect LED Bulb
LED Light bulb or Light lamp is a solid-state lamp which is composed of light emitting diodes.It has been in use since 70’s along with LED alarm, calculators and watches. Now, white light LEDs are also invented which can light up a room with high intensity and at an affordable price.
Sometimes it becomes a headache that whether LED bulb should be used or not. In fact, it is a great concern that how could you figure out the perfect situation for use of LED bulb. Here are some factors depending on which you can choose a perfect bulb for you:
LEDs are efficient and this property made its application in portable battery operated devices such as calculators, watches etc more feasible and popular. With increased power, LEDs can offer substantial light output still retaining it’s efficiency. Manufacturers sometimes combine multiple individual LEDs into a single one for a brighter output.
These days, it is available in various colors whereas earlier it was available in such designs which couldn’t make everyone happy. Now it is available in white color and emits a pleasant kind of light which fits a variety of applications. Exterior lighting generally should be warmer in tone as compared to the lighting in garage or kitchen which requires a brighter light.
Most of the negative aspects of LEDs have been eliminated over the years by the manufacturers. However, the cost of per unit and cost of operation of LEDs still remain high when compared with Compact Fluorescent (CF) or incandescent bulbs. But the lifespan of LEDs is almost 20 times when compared with conventional light bulbs which last for 2000 hours. Various power ratings of each bulb which is measured in Watts saves energy. Manufacturers of LED bulbs advertise the amount of electricity saved by the LED bulbs on the package which has been proved accurate after various tests.
When is it worth to buy a LED bulb?
To understand the application of LED bulbs, let’s consider the two applications. First could be a closet lamp and second could be kitchen or bathroom light. A closet lamp is rarely used whereas kitchen or bathroom lights are left on all night long. Hence it would be more advisable to upgrade your kitchen and bathroom light with LED bulbs as they are used for long hours. You can save a lot by this simple replacement.
You can also put LED bulbs in a room with a high ceiling where changing bulbs in very difficult or practically not possible. A house owner might give a lot for the ease of not replacing the bulb in such a ceiling for years.
Finally, we can say that LED bulbs offer a lot of advantages but their implementation is limited to cases where their high cost is justified by their cost of operation as well as other specific cases where it benefits the consumer.
How To Wire Your House
Home wiring is a complex process and it requires a deep understanding as well as a conscious planning. You can opt for a professional or you can do it yourself, it just needs some sorts of planning and optimal quality of equipment like house wire.
So whether you are planning to do it your self or you want to get it done through a professional a thorough knowledge of residential wiring lets you finish the job with assurity. So here is a thorough explanation of each and every steps with every requirement that will make your job easy because if it is not done in a correct way then it will lead to a bad electrical coded house.
Develop a Layout of Wiring Plan
First, even before you purchase materials, you must create a layout of your wiring plan. The location of every electrical item (including switches, outlets, lights, and appliances) must be marked and designated precisely on the plan. You can take help in this step from an engineer.
Collect all required Material
A proper wiring plan will include a list of all the required material. You can buy it from any trusted retailer as per your wish.
Mount boxes and Can lights in the exact positions on the wall studs and ceiling joists, as specified on the wiring plan. Standard wall receptacles should be installed 12 inches above floor level.
After installing boxes, drill holes in studs between the boxes to provide a pathway for all the wiring. These holes must be drilled into the center of the studs and allow a 1 -inch clearance so nails or screws in the stud do not damage the cable. If a 1 -inch clearance is impossible to achieve for some reason, then steel nail plates must be installed on the stud in front of the hole to protect the cable.
Keep all the holes in level to pull wire through them easily. In order to minimize electrical interference, drill holes for low-voltage wires at least 6 inches away from holes for line-voltage wires.
Pulling of wires
Pull wires through the holes drilled in the studs. All wires must connect to the central electrical panel. The wire heading to the panel is called a “home run”. This is typically the longest run of wire, and should be installed first, connecting the panel to the first box and so on. It is a good idea to label each end of each wire to eliminate the possibility of later confusion.
Finally strip the wire and stuff it into the boxes, and connect it to other wires using wire crimpers and wire nuts of the appropriate size.
Once you install the connections and outlets, make up and secure the electrical panels, meter box, grounding, overhead or underground conduits and service wire.
The final step in any wiring project is testing and preparation for inspection. The circuit must be visually verified to be completely connected and that all wires are properly stuffed into their boxes.
Rallison – We are India’s leading home electrical wire supplier & manufacturer company.
What Is Solar PV And How It Works
Solar photovoltaic or solar PV systems use sun’s energy to generate electricity. This is very simple and you only need solar panels to generate energy and are very feasible economically.
Thin layer of semi-conducting material covered between a sheet of polymer resin and glass comprise of a solar panel. When these solar panels are exposed to sun, they get charged or energised and produce electricity.
Types of solar PV panels
There are three kinds of Solar PV Panels which consist of Silicon but prepared with different methods and cuts and have different efficiency
- Polycrystalline (or multicrystalline)
- Hybrid and thin film (or amorphous silicon).
Monocrystalline cells have more efficiency but are costlier than polycrystalline cells. On the other hand Hybrid cells consist of crystalline cells of thin film cells and are known as HIT solar cells as well. This would make the panels more efficient but costlier. Amorphous silicon or thin film cells are cheaper and least efficient. This is the reason it is often used for residential projects.
Solar Tiles and Cost
Solar tiles and slates are used in the same way as overlapped structure just like ordinary roof tiles. Also, it would be more aesthetic instead of fitting solar panels but at the same time it would be more costlier. Solar tiles are economically less efficient when compared to solar PV panels.
Solar panel efficiency
Generally, more efficiency depends on cost and more efficient solar panel is more costly. Before you go and buy expensive panels, you must keep in mind the size of your roof. If you have a large space, then cheaper and less efficient panels would be ideal for the long run saving you a lot of money. But if you lack space, you should go for more efficient panels to maximize efficiency in the small space with lesser number of panels.
Solar panel modules and system
A solar PV System is composed of solar panels, isolator switches, a PV-generation meters, inverter and cables.
Points to be considered while installing a solar system:
- The larger the number of panels on your roof, the more electricity you can generate but with a larger initial investment.
- The PV panels produce direct current (DC) which has to be converted to alternating current (AC) which is safer for household use. An inverter can be used to convert the DC charge to AC charge.
- Inverters are generally placed in loft. However the lifespan of an inverter is not the same as panels and replacing them could cost up to £1,000.
- Isolator switches are used before and after the inverter for safety. Solar panel system comes with PV-generation meter which are installed inside your house. They help you with the real time reading of the amount of electricity being generated by the systems.
The PV-meters also measure the amount of electricity being consumed which can be used to calculate the Feed-in Tarrif payment. This is helpful in getting cash for the electricity generated by your system.
We hear all the time about construction or design choices homeowners can make to go green and be more environmentally conscious. These are usually big-ticket items — like efficient windows, certain types of floors, solar panels, etc.
While apartment dwellers may not have any control over those aspects, they do have plenty of options in terms of being more energy efficient and eco-friendly. What’s best? Most of these ideas are really simple to carry out.
Here are five easy ways to go green while living in an apartment:
Install a low-flow shower head
One structural change you can make in your apartment is to replace the showerhead. You have several options when it comes to low-flow showerheads that will help reduce the amount of wasted water. The Department of Energy recommends you do something called the “bucket test” to see if you need a new showerhead.
First, get a bucket that is marked in gallon increments and place it under your showerhead. Then turn on the water at the level you normally use during your showers. Keep note of how many seconds it takes for the bucket to fill to the 1-gallon mark. If it takes 20 seconds or less to reach one gallon, you could benefit from a new efficient showerhead.
Switch to LED lights
Switching out your lightbulbs can also make a big difference in your apartment’s energy efficiency. Consider Energy Star-rated LED lights, which use at least 75 percent less energy and last 25 times longer than traditional incandescent light bulbs.
Energy Star estimates we could, together, save $30 billion in energy costs if there was mainstream acceptance of LED lights by 2027.
Kill energy vampires
Speaking of energy savings, it’s time to get rid of those energy vampires in your apartment. These are appliances that continue to suck energy, even when they’re not in use. We’re talking about things like your coffee maker, phone charger, DVR and TV.
You have a couple of options here. If you don’t frequently use a particular item, unplug it after each use. (A TV in a second bedroom is the perfect example here.) If you do use the appliances every day, make sure they’re plugged into a power strip. That makes turning everything on and off as easy as flipping a switch.
Ditch plastic bags
Those plastic grocery bags cause considerable harm to our environment. Not only do we commonly see them floating around as litter on the roads and highways, many of the bags eventually make their way to the water.
Experts say 80 percent of marine litter is that bag you get for one item you only use for a few minutes when walking to and from the car.
Switch to reusable bags! Not only are they more durable and won’t clutter up your apartment like plastic bags, but many stores will give you a small discount when you bring your own totes.
Recycle everything possible
More and more apartment communities are providing resources so residents can recycle. This is great! Even if you live in a community that doesn’t have recycling bins, you can still take part.
Just collect all those cans, paper and everything else you used to thrown away, and take it to a recycling canter. Sure, it’s a little more work, but it’s worth it in the end. You can also declutter and recycle things you no longer need every time you sign a new lease.
What do you do to conserve energy or live eco-friendly? Tell us in the comments section below.