The ability to do a basic house wiring in a home is a skill which has to be acquired. Electrical wiring in a residential house is not that complicated, but it can be dangerous.Therefore a proper understanding of how the wiring and electrical fixtures work is essential.
The steps to set up electrical wiring in a house are mentioned below:
Understanding Residential Wiring
- Most homes in India have two hot wires and one neutral coming into them. Supplying a stated 240/120 volts. The actual voltage received is normally slightly less 230/115 volts. This type of power is commonly called single phased power. Most residential homes have this type of basic house wiring.
- The power coming into home is also called alternating current. Alternating current is used to allow electricity to be transported over long distances.
- When you use one hot wire and the neutral you get 115 volt power. Most small electrical devices and lights run on this current. Heavy duty items like ranges, hot water tanks and dryers use both hot wires and the neutral to achieve 230 volts.
Basic House Wiring Rules
The first rule to remember is that basic house wiring can be dangerous.And it should be not carried without a good understanding of how it works and safe work practices. In addition local and national electrical codes apply.One should need to consult the local building department to get information on what is acceptable for basic house wiring in a house.
Basic house wiring the safe way
- Just shutting off a switch is not enough. On the job electricians using lock out tag out procedures to make sure circuits are not inadvertently turned on while they are being worked on.
- It is much safer to turn the circuit off at the panel before working on the device. Someone could accidentally turn on the switch by mistake and an accident ensues. One should additionally tape off the breaker and mark it as being worked on.
- A non-contact voltage tester should be used to check the box before messing with it. It is possible for more than one circuit to run through the same box. One may have shut one of them off, but there could still be hot wires in the box. The number of combinations one can find in basic house wiring is staggering.We should always double check.
- Circuits in panel boxes are sometimes poorly marked. It may take some experimenting to get the right circuit. One should take time and make sure that the power is off.
Troubleshooting wiring problems
1. Safety First
Making sure the ‘POWER IS OFF’ before working on any electrical device is always the first thing to do. Understanding how electricity works and the task one is performing should be done before beginning. Using the proper tools and wearing the right personal protective equipment is also very important.Electricity can be hurting or can even kill if statutory precautions are not taken care of.There are some basic precautions that can keep away from getting hurt.
2. Main service panel
The nerve center of the home electrical system is the ‘Main Service Panel‘. It contains the circuit breakers or fuses for the electrical power in the home. Most of the time it will also have a ‘Main Disconnect’ for the homes power supply.
Main service panel or distribution panel as it is sometimes called, branches out into several circuits. Some circuits are just for outlets in the home and others are forlighting.You also have what are called ‘Dedicated Circuits‘ for special items such as a furnace or washer and dryer. When a specific item stops working the first thing to check is the breaker for that item.The panel should have labels for what each circuit breaker is assigned to.
3. Circuit breaker types
The main function of a breaker or fuse is to keep circuits from overloading. Wires and devices are only rated for a certain amount of current. If too much electricity passes through a wire it will overheat and can cause a fire.Circuit breakers are designed to trip when the amount of current exceeds a certain level. This is a safety feature that is required by code. Breakers are also used to regulate the power to certain devices, some requiring a little power, others require a lot of power.Newer circuit breakers can also detect shock hazards and arcing conditions. Again, safety features to prevent fires and injury.
4. Electrical wire types
Electrical wire comes in many sizes and is made from different materials. There are certain hazards that can arise from certain types of wire.Additionally, the size of the wire will determine how much current can go through it. One should use the correct size wire whenever you are installing or replacing electrical devices.
5. Adding a Circuit to a Panel
Adding circuits in an existing home may be required for various reasons, such as remodeling or the purchase of new appliances. There are several factors to consider before a new circuit is added.
6. Residential Wiring
One should have the basic information about the types of wiring and methods that are used in most homes. It is important to understand what the various wires do and how that are connected to each other.Newer wiring is color coded, so the installer know what the wire is for. However, colors are not an absolute indicator of how a wire is being use.
7. Installing electrical fixtures
Changing existing outlets, switches and fixtures is a common electrical task.One should get enough tips and tricks for performing the mentioned tasks.
Basic House Wiring Summary
Adding a plug or replacing a fixture is not that hard. Make sure you acquire an adequate knowledge of basic house wiring before you begin. It may sound like a broken record, but make sure you take precautions when you work with electricity. It is dangerous and you can be hurt. When you are careful, it is not that hard.